Chapter 6

Thoughts on Christian Perfection

19. At the conference 1759, perceiving some danger that a diversity of sentiments should insensibly steal in among us, we again largely considered this doctrine. And soon after I published Thoughts on Christian Perfection, prefaced with the following advertisement:

'The following tract is by no means designed to gratify the curiosity of any man. It is not intended to prove the doctrine at large, in opposition to those who explode and ridicule it; no, nor to answer the numerous objections against it which may be raised even by serious men. All I intend here is simply to declare what are my sentiments on this head; what Christian perfection does, according to my apprehension, include, and what it does not; and to add a few practical observations and directions relative to the subject.

'As these thoughts were at first thrown together by way of question and answer, I let them continue in the same form. They are just the same that I have entertained for above twenty years.

'Q. What is Christian Perfection?

'A. The loving God with all our heart, mind, soul, and strength. This implies that no wrong temper, none contrary to love, remains in the soul; and that all the thoughts, words, and actions are governed by pure love.

'Q. Do you affirm that this perfection excludes all infirmities, ignorance, and mistake?

'A. I continually affirm quite the contrary, and always have done so.

'Q. But how can every thought, word, and work be governed by pure love, and the man be subject at the same time to ignorance and mistake?

'A. I see no contradiction here: "A man may be filled with pure love, and still be liable to mistake." Indeed, I do not expect to be freed from actual mistakes till this mortal puts on immortality. I believe this to be a natural consequence of the soul's dwelling in flesh and blood. For we cannot now think at all, but by the mediation of those bodily organs, which have suffered equally with the rest of our frame. And hence we cannot avoid sometimes thinking wrong, till this corruptible shall have put on incorruption.

'But we may carry this thought farther yet. A mistake in judgment may possibly occasion a mistake in practice. For instance: Mr. De Renty's mistake touching the nature of mortification, arising from prejudice of education, occasioned that practical mistake, his wearing an iron girdle. And a thousand such instances there may be, even in those who are in the highest state of grace. Yet, where every word and action springs from love, such a mistake is not properly a sin. However, it cannot bear the rigour of God's justice, but needs the atoning blood.

'Q. What was the judgment of all our brethren who met at Bristol, in August 1758, on this head?

'A. It was expressed in these words: (1) Every one may mistake as long as he lives. (2) A mistake in opinion may occasion a mistake in practice. (3) Every such mistake is a transgression of the perfect law. Therefore (4) Every such mistake, were it not for the blood of atonement, would expose to eternal damnation. (5) It follows that the most perfect have continual need of the merits of Christ, even for their actual transgressions, and may say, for themselves, as well as for their brethren, "Forgive us our trespasses."

' 'This easily accounts for what might otherwise seem to be utterly unaccountable, namely, that those who are not offended when we speak of the highest degree of love, yet will not hear of living without sin. The reason is, they know, all men are liable to mistake, and that in practice as well as in judgment. But they do not know, or do not observe, that this is not sill, if love is the sole principle of action.

'Q. But still if they live without sin, does not this exclude the necessity of a Mediator? At least, is it not plain that they stand no longer in need of Christ in His priestly office?

'A. Far from it. None feel their need of Christ like these; none so entirely depend upon Him. For Christ does not give life to the soul separate from, but in and with, Himself. Hence his words are equally true of all men, in whatsoever state of grace they are: "As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine; no more can ye, except ye abide in Me. Without" (or separate from) "Me ye can do nothing."

'In every state we need Christ in the following respects:--(1) Whatever grace we receive, it is a free gift from Him. (2) We receive it as His purchase, merely in consideration of the price He paid. (3) We have this grace, not only from Christ, but in Him. For our perfection is not like that of a tree, which flourishes by the sap derived from its own root, but, as was said before, like that of a branch, which, united to the vine, bears fruit; but, severed from it, is dried up and withered. (4) All our blessings, temporal, spiritual, and eternal, depend on His intercession for us, which is one branch of His priestly office, whereof therefore we have always equal need. (5) The best of men still need Christ, in His priestly office, to atone for their omissions, their shortcomings (as some not improperly speak), their mistakes in judgment and practice, and their defects of various kinds, for these are all deviations from the perfect law, and consequently need an atonement. Yet that they are not properly sins, we apprehend, may appear from the words of St. Paul: "He that loveth hath fulfilled the law; for love is the fulfilling of the law" (Rom. xiii 10). Now, mistakes and whatever infirmities necessarily flow from the corruptible state of the body are no way contrary to lovenor therefore, in the Scripture sense, sin.

'To explain myself a little farther on this head(1) Not only sin, properly so called (that is, a voluntary transgression of a known law), but sin, improperly so called (that is, an involuntary transgression of a divine law, known or unknown), needs the atoning blood. (2) 1 believe there is no such perfection in this life as excludes these involuntary transgressions, which i apprehend to be naturally consequent on the ignorance and mistakes inseparable from mortality. (3) Therefore, sinless perfection is a phrase I never use, lest I should seem to contradict myself. (5) Such transgressions you may call sins, if you please: I do not, for the reasons above mentioned.

'Q. What advice would you give to those that do, and those that do not, call them so?

'A. Let those that do not call them sins never think that themselves or any other persons are in such a state as that they can stand before infinite justice without a Mediator. This must argue either the deepest ignorance, or the highest arrogance and presumption.

'Let those who do call them so, beware how they confound these defects with sins, properly so called. 'But how will they avoid it? how will these be distinguished from those, if they are all promiscuously called sins? I am much afraid, if we should allow any sins to be consistent with perfection, few would confine the idea to those defects concerning which only the assertion could be true.

'Q. But how can a liableness to mistake consist with perfect love? Is not a person who is perfected in love every moment under its influence? And can any mistake flow from pure love?

'A. I answer--(1) Many mistakes may consist with pure love. (2) Some may accidentally flow from it: I mean, love itself may incline us to mistake. The pure love of our neighbour, springing from the love of God, thinketh no evil, believeth and hopeth all things. Now, this very temper, unsuspicious, ready to believe and hope the best of all men, may occasion our thinking some men better than they really are. Here, then, is a manifest mistake, accidentally flowing from pure love.

'Q. How shall we avoid setting perfection too high or too low?

'A. By keeping to the Bible, and setting it just as high as the Scripture does. It is nothing higher and nothing lower than thisthe pure love of God and man; the loving God with all our heart and soul, and our neighbour as ourselves. It is love governing the heart and life, running through all our tempers, words, and actions.

'Q. Suppose one had attained to this, would you advise him to speak of it?

'A. At first, perhaps, he would scarce be able to refrain, the fire would be so hot within him; his desire to declare the lovingkindness of the Lord carrying him away like a torrent. But afterwards he might: and then it would be advisable not to speak of it to them that know not God (it is most likely it would only provoke them to contradict and blaspheme); nor to others, without some particular reason, without some good in view. And then he should have especial care to avoid all appearance of boasting; to speak with the deepest humility and reverence, giving all the glory to God.

'Q. But would it not be better to be entirely silent, not to speak of it at all?

'A. By silence he might avoid many crosses, which will naturally and necessarily ensue, if he simply declare, even among believers, what God has wrought in his soul. If, therefore, such a one were to confer with flesh and blood, he would be entirely silent. But this could not be done with a clear conscience; for undoubtedly he ought to speak. Men do not light a candle to put it under a bushel: much less does the allwise God. He does not raise such a monument of His power and love, to hide it from all mankind: rather He intends it as a general blessing to those who are simple of heart. He designs thereby not barely the happiness of that individual person, but the animating and encouraging others to follow after the same blessing. His will is, "that many shall see it" and rejoice, "and put their trust in the Lord." Nor does anything under heaven more quicken the desires of those who are justified, than to converse with those whom they believe to have experienced a still higher salvation. This places that salvation full in their view, and increases their hunger and thirst after it: an advantage which must have been entirely lost, had the person so saved buried himself in silence.

'Q. But is there no way to prevent these crosses which usually fall on those who speak of being thus saved?

'A. It seems they cannot be prevented altogether, while so much of nature remains even in believers. But something might be done, if the preacher in every place would (1) talk freely with all who speak thus, and (2) labour to prevent the unjust or unkind -treatment of those, in favour of whom there is reasonable proof.

'Q. What is reasonable proof? How may we certainly know one that is saved from all sin?

'A. We cannot infallibly know one that is thus saved (no, nor even one that is justified), unless it should please God to endow us with the miraculous discernment of spirits. But we apprehend these would be sufficient proofs to any reasonable man, and such as would leave little room to doubt either the truth or depth of the work--(1) If we had clear evidence of his exemplary behaviour for some time before this supposed change. This would give us reason to believe he would not "lie for God," but speak neither more nor less than he felt. (2) If he gave a distinct account of the time and manner wherein the change was wrought, with sound speech which could not be reproved. And (3) if it appeared that all his subsequent words and actions were holy and unblamable.

'The short of the matter is this--(1) I have abundant reason to believe this person will not lie; (2) he testifies before God, "I feel no sin, but all love; I pray, rejoice, and give thanks without ceasing and I have as clear an inward witness that I am fully renewed, as that I am justified." Now, if I have nothing to oppose to this plain testimony, I ought in reason to believe it.

'It avails nothing to object, "But I know several things wherein he is quite mistaken." For it has been allowed that all who are in the body are liable to mistake, and that a mistake in judgment may sometimes occasion a mistake in practice; though great care is to be taken that no ill use be made of this concession. For instance: Even one that is perfected in love may mistake with regard to another person, and may think him, in a particular case, to be more or less faulty than he really is; and hence he may speak to him with more or less severity than the truth requires. And in this sense (though that be not the primary meaning of St. James), "in many things we offend all." This therefore is no proof at all that the person so speaking is not perfect.

'Q, But is it not a proof, if he is surprised or fluttered by a noise, a fall, or some sudden danger?

'A. It is not; for one may start, tremble, change colour, or be otherwise disordered in body, while the soul is calmly stayed on God, and remains in perfect peace. Nay, the mind itself may be deeply distressed, may be exceeding sorrowful, may be perplexed and pressed down by heaviness and anguish, even to agony, while the heart cleaves to God by perfect love, and the will is wholly resigned to Him. Was it not so with the Son of God Himself? Does any child of man endure the distress, the anguish, the agony, which He sustained? And yet He knew no sin.

'Q. But can any one who has a pure heart prefer pleasing to unpleasing food, or use any pleasure of sense which is not strictly necessary? If so, how do they differ from others?

'A. The difference between these and others in taking pleasant food is--(1) They need none of none of these things to make them happy; for they have a spring of happiness within. They see and love God. Hence they rejoice evermore, and in everything give thanks. (2) They may use them, but they do not seek them. (3) They use them sparingly, and not for the sake of the thing itself This being promised, we answer. directly -Such a one may use pleasing food without the danger which attends those who are not saved from sin. He may prefer it to unpleasing, though equally wholesome, food, as a means of increasing thankfulness, with a single eye to God, who giveth us all things richly to enjoy. On the same principle, he may smell a flower, or eat a bunch of grapes, or take any other pleasure which does not lessen but increase his delight in God. Therefore, neither can we say that one perfected in love would be incapable of marriage, and of worldly business--if he were called thereto, he would be more capable than ever; as being able to do all things without hurry or carefulness, without any distraction of spirit.

'Q. But if two perfect Christians had children, how could they be born in sin, since there was none in the parents?

'A. It is a possible, but not a probable, case; I doubt whether it ever was, or ever will be. But, waiving this, I answer, Sin is entailed upon me, not by immediate generation, but by my first parent. "In Adam all died; by the disobedience of one, all men were made sinners"; all men, without exception, who were in his loins when he ate the forbidden fruit.

'We have a remarkable illustration of this in gardening : grafts on a crab-stock bear excellent fruit; but sow the kernels of this fruit, and what will be the event? They produce as mere crabs as ever were eaten.

'Q. But what does the perfect one do more than others? more than the common believers?

'A. Perhaps nothing; so may the providence of God have hedged him in by outward circumstances. Perhaps not so much; though he desires and longs to spend and be spent for God-at least, not externally; he neither speaks so many words, nor does so many works; as neither did our Lord Himself speak so many words, or do so many, no, nor so great works, as some of His apostles (John xiv. 12). But what then? This is no proof that he has not more grace; and by this God, measures the outward work. Hear ye Him: "Verily I say unto you, This poor widow has cast in more than they all." Verily, this poor man, with his few broken words, hath spoken more than they all. Verily, this poor woman, that hath given a cup of cold water, hath done more than they all. Oh, cease to "judge according to appearance," and learn to "judge righteous judgment!"

' Q. But is not this a proof against him,--I feel no power either in his words or prayer?

'A. It is not; for perhaps that is your own fault. You are not likely to feel any power therein, if any of these hindrances lie in the way--(1) Your own deadness of soul. The dead Pharisees felt no power even in His words who "spake as never man spake." (2) The guilt of some unrepented sin lying upon the conscience. (3) Prejudice toward him of any kind. (4) Your not believing that state to be attainable wherein he professes to be. (5) Unreadiness to think or own he has attained it. (6) Overvaluing or idolising him. (7) Overvaluing yourself and your own judgment. If any of these is the case, what wonder is it that you feel no power in anything he says? But do not others feel it? If they do, your argument falls to the ground. And if they do not, do none of these hindrances lie in their way too? You must be certain of this before you can build any argument thereon; and even then your argument will prove no more than that grace and gifts do not always go together.

' "But he does not come up to my idea of a perfect Christian." And perhaps no one ever did, or ever will. For your idea may go beyond, or at least beside, the scriptural account. It may include more than the Bible includes therein; or, however, something which that does not include. Scripture perfection is pure love, filling the heart, and governing all the words and actions. If your idea includes anything more or anything else, it is not scriptural; and then, no wonder that a scripturally perfect Christian does not come up to it.

'I fear many stumble on this stumbling-block. They include as many ingredients as they please, not according to Scripture, but their own imagination, in their idea of one that is perfect; and then readily deny any one to be such who does not answer that imaginary idea.

'The more care should we take to keep the simple scriptural account continually in our eye. Pure love reigning alone in the heart and life, this is the whole of scriptural perfection.

'Q. When may a person judge himself to have attained this?

'A. When, after having been fully convinced of inbred sin, by a far deeper and clearer conviction than that he experienced before justification, and after having experienced a gradual mortification of it, he experiences a total death to sin, and an entire renewal in the love and image of God, so as to rejoice evermore, to pray without ceasing, and in everything to give thanks. Not that "to feel all love and no sin" is a sufficient proof. Several have experienced this for a time, before their souls were fully renewed. None therefore ought to believe that the work is done, till there is added the testimony of the Spirit witnessing his entire sanctification as clearly as his justification.

'Q. But whence is it that some imagine they are thus sanctified, when in reality they are not?

'A. It is hence: they do not judge by all the preceding marks, but either by part of them, or by others that are ambiguous. But I know no instance of a person attending to them all, and yet deceived in this matter. I believe there can be none in the world. If a man be deeply and fully convinced, after justification, of inbred sin; if he then experience a gradual mortification of sin, and afterwards an entire renewal in the image of God; if to this change, immensely greater than that wrought when he was justified, be added a clear direct witness of the renewal, I judge it as impossible this man should be deceived herein, as that God should lie. And if one whom I know to be a man of veracity testify these things to me, I ought not, without some sufficient reason, to reject his testimony.

'Q. Is this death to sin, and renewal in love, gradual or instantaneous?

'A. A man may be dying for some time; yet he does not, properly speaking, die till the instant the soul is separated from the body; and in that instant he lives the life of eternity. In like manner, he may be dying to sin for some time; yet he is not dead to sin till sin is separated from his soul; and in that instant he lives the full life of love. And as the change undergone whe n the body dies is of a different kind, and infinitely greater than any we had known before, yea, such as till then it is impossible to conceive; so the change wrought when the soul dies to sin is of a different kind, and infinitely greater than any before, and than any can conceive till he experiences it. Yet he still grows in grace, in the knowledge of Christ, in the love and image of God; and will do so, not only till death, but to all eternity.

'Q. How are we to wait for this change?

'A. Not in careless indifference, or indolent inactivity; but in vigorous, universal obedience, in a zealous keeping of all the commandments, in watchfulness and painfulness, in denying ourselves, and taking up our cross daily; as well as in earnest prayer and fasting, and a close attendance on all the ordinances of God. And if any man dream of attaining it any other way (yea, or of keeping it when it is attained, when he has received it even in the largest measure), he deceiveth his own soul. It is true, we receive it by simple faith; but God does not, will not, give that faith unless we seek it with all diligence, in the way which He hath ordained.

'This consideration. may satisfy those who inquire, why so few have received the blessing. Inquire how many are seeking it in this way; and you have a sufficient answer. 'Prayer especially is wanting. Who continues instant therein? Who wrestles with God for this very thing? So, "ye have not, because ye ask not; or because ye ask amiss," namely, that you may be renewed before you die. Before you die! Will that content you? Nay, but ask that it may be done now; to-day, while it is called to-day. Do not call this "setting God a time." Certainly, to-day is His time as well as to-morrow. Make haste, man, make haste. Let

'Thy soul break out in strong desire,
The perfect bliss to prove;
Thy longing heart be all on fire
To be dissolved in love!"

'Q. But may we not continue in peace and joy till we are perfected in love?

'A. Certainly we may; for the kingdom of God is not divided against itself; therefore let not believers be discouraged from "rejoicing in the Lord always." And yet we may be sensibly pained at the sinful nature that still remains in us. It is good for us to have a piercing sense of this, and a vehement desire to be delivered from it. But this should only incite us the more zealously to fly every moment to our strong Helper; the more earnestly to "press forward to the mark, the prize of our high calling in Christ Jesus." And when the sense of our sin most abounds, the sense of His love should much more abound.

'Q. How should we treat those who think they have attained?

'A. Examine them candidly, and exhort them to pray fervently that God would show them all that is in their hearts. The most earnest exhortations to abound in every grace, and the strongest cautions to avoid all evil, are given throughout the New Testament to those who are in the highest state of grace. But this should be done with the utmost tenderness, and without any harshness, sternness, or sourness. We should carefully 'avoid the very appearance of anger, unkindness, or contempt. Leave it to Satan thus to tempt, and to his children to cry out, "Let us examine him with despitefulness and torture, that we may know his meekness and prove his patience." If they are faithful to the grace given, they are in no danger of perishing thereby; no, not if they remain in that mistake till their spirit is returning to God.

'Q. But what hurt can it do to deal harshly with them?

'A. Either they are mistaken, or they are not. If they are, it may destroy their souls. This is nothing impossible, no, nor improbable. It may so enrage or so discourage them, that they will sink and rise no more. If they are not mistaken, it may grieve those whom God has not grieved, and do much hurt unto our own souls. For undoubtedly he that toucheth them, toucheth, as it were, the apple of God's eye. If they are indeed full of His Spirit, to behave unkindly or contemptuously to them is doing no little despite to the Spirit of grace. Hereby, likewise, we feed and increase in ourselves evil surmising, and many wrong tempers. To instance only in one: What self-sufficiency is this, to set ourselves up for inquisitors-general, for peremptory judges in these deep things of God! Are we qualified for the office?

Can we pronounce in all cases, how far infirmity reaches? what may, and what may not, be resolved into it? what may in all circumstances, and what may not, consist with perfect love? Can we precisely determine how it will influence the look, the gesture, the tone of voice? If we can, doubtless we are "the men, and wisdom shall die with us."

'Q. But if they are displeased at our not believing them, is not this a full proof against them?

'A. According as that displeasure is: if they are angry, it is a proof against them; if they are grieved, it is not. They ought to be grieved, if we disbelieve a real work of God, and thereby deprive ourselves of the advantage we might have received from it. And we may easily mistake this grief for anger, as the outward expressions of both are much alike.

' Q. But it is not well to find out those who fancy they have attained when they have not?

'A. It is well to do it by mild, loving examination. But it is not well to triumph even over these. It is extremely wrong, if we find such an instance, to rejoice as if we had found great spoils. Ought we not rather to grieve, to be deeply concerned, to let our eyes run, down with tears? Here is one who seemed to be a living proof of God's power, to save to the uttermost; but, alas! it is not as we hoped. He is weighed in the balance, and found wanting. And is this matter of joy? Ought we not to rejoice a thousand times more, if we can find nothing but pure love?

' "But he is deceived." What then? It is a harmless mistake, while he feels nothing but love in his heart. It is a mistake which generally argues great grace, a high degree both of holiness and happiness. This should be a matter of real joy to all that are simple of heart: not the mistake itself, but the height of grace which for a time occasions it. I rejoice that this soul is always happy in Christ, always full of prayer and thanksgiving. I rejoice that he feels no unholy temper, but the pure love of God continually. And I will rejoice, if sin is suspended till it is totally destroyed.

'Q. Is there no danger, then, in a man's being thus deceived?

'A. Not at the time that he feels no sin. There was danger before, and there will be again when he comes into fresh trials. But so long as he feels nothing but love animating all his thoughts, and words, and actions, he is in no danger: he is not only happy, but safe, "under the shadow of the Almighty"; and for God's sake, let him continue in that love as long as he can. Meantime you may do well to warn him of the danger that will be, if his love grow cold and sin revive: even the danger of casting away hope, and supposing that, because he hath not attained yet, therefore he never shall.

'Q. But what if none have attained it yet? What if all who think so are deceived?

'A. Convince me of this, and I will preach it no more. But understand me right: I do not build any doctrine on this or that person. This or any other man may be deceived, and I am not moved. But if there are none made perfect yet, God has not sent me to preach perfection.

'Put a parallel case: For many years I have preached, "There is a peace of God which passeth all understanding." Convince me that this word has fallen to the ground; that in all these years none have attained this peace; that there is no living witness of it at this day; and I will preach it no more.

' "Oh, but several persons have died in that peace." Perhaps so; but I want living witnesses. I cannot indeed be infallibly certain that this or that person is a witness; but if I were certain there are none such, I must have done with this doctrine.

' "You misunderstand me. I believe some who died in this love, enjoyed it long before their death. But I was not certain that their former testimony was true till some hours before they died."

'You had not an infallible certainty then: and a reasonable certainty you might have had before; such a certainty as might have quickened and comforted your own soul, and answered all other Christian purposes. Such a certainty as this any candid person may have, suppose there be any living witness, by talking one hour with that person in the love and fear of God.

'Q. But what does it signify whether any have attained it or no, seeing so many scriptures witness for it?

'A. If I were convinced that none in England had attained what has been so clearly and strongly preached by such a number of preachers in so many places, and for so long a time, I should be clearly convinced that we had all mistaken the meaning of those scriptures; and therefore, for the time to come, I too must teach that "sin will remain till death." '

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