Chapter 2

In What Sense Are Christians Perfect?

12. 1 think it was in the latter end of the year 1740 that I had a conversation with Dr. Gibson, then Bishop of London, at Whitehall. He asked me what I meant by Perfection. I told him without any disguise or reserve. When I ceased speaking he said, 'Mr. Wesley, if this be all you mean, publish it to all the world. If then can confute what you say, he may have leave.' I answered, 'My Lord, I will'; and accordingly wrote and published the sermon on Perfection.

In this I endeavoured to show-(1) In what sense Christians are not, (2) in what sense they are, perfect.

'1. In what sense they are not. They are not perfect in knowledge. They are not free from ignorance; no, nor from mistake. We are no more to expect any to be infallible, than to be omniscient. They are not free from infirmities, such as weakness or slowness of understanding, irregular quickness or heaviness of imagination. Such, in another kind, are, impropriety of language, ungracefulness of pronunciation; one might add a thousand nameless defects, conversation or behaviour. From such infirmities as these none are perfectly freed till their spirits return to God. Neither can we expect, till then, to be wholly freed from temptation: "for the servant is not above his Master." But neither in this sense is absolute perfection on earth. There is no perfection of degrees; none which does not admit of a continual increase.

'2. In what sense, then, are they perfect? Observe, we are not now speaking of babes in Christ, but adult Christians. But even babes in Christ are so far perfect as not commit sin. This St. John affirms expressly; and it cannot be disproved by the examples of the Old Testament. For what if the holiest of the ancient Jews did sometimes commit sin? We cannot infer from hence, that "all Christians do and must commit sin as they live."

'But does not the Scripture say, "A just man sinneth seven times a day?" It does not. Indeed it says, "A just man falleth seven times." But this is quite another thing. For, first, the words, a day, are not in the text. Secondly, here is no mention of falling into sin at all. What is here mentioned is falling into temporal affiction.

'But elsewhere Solomon says, "There is no man that sinneth not." Doubtless thus it was in the days of Solomon; yea, and from Solomon to Christ there, was then no man that sinned not. But whatever was the case of those under the law,, we may safely affirm, with St. John, that since the Gospel was given, "he that is born of God sinneth not."

'The privileges of Christians are in no wise to be measured by what the Old Testament records concerning those who were under the Jewish dispensation; seeing the fulness of time is now come; the Holy Ghost is now given; the great salvation of God is now brought to men by the revelation of Jesus Christ. The kingdom of heaven is now set up on earth, concerning which the Spirit of God declared of old time (so far is David from being the pattern or standard of Christian perfection), "He that is feeble among them at that day shall be as David; and the house of David shall be as the angel of the Lord before them" (Zech. xii. 8).

'But the apostles themselves committed sin: Peter by dissembling, Paul by his sharp contention with Barnabas. Suppose they did, will you argue thus: "If two of the apostles once committed sin, then all other Christians, in all ages, do and must commit sin as long as they live?" Nay, God forbid we should thus speak. No necessity of sin was laid upon them: the grace of God was surely sufficient for them; and it is sufficient for us at this day.

'But St. James says, "In many things we offend all." True: but who are the persons here spoken of? Why, those many masters or teachers whom God had not sent. Not the apostle himself, nor any real Christian. That in the word we (used by a figure of speech, common in all other as well as the inspired writings) the apostle could not possibly include himself, or any other true believer, appears, first, from the ninth verse: "Therewith bless we God, and therewith curse we men." Surely not we apostles! not we believers! Secondly, from the words preceding the text: "My brethren, be not many masters," or teachers, "knowing that we shall receive the greater condemnation: for in many things we offend all." We! Who? Not the apostles, nor true believers, but they who were to "receive the greater condemnation," because of those many offences. Nay, thirdly, the verse itself proves, that"we offend all" cannot be spoken either of all men, or all Christians. For in it immediately follows the mention of a man who ofends not, as the we first mentioned did; from whom, therefore, he is professedly contra-distinguished, and pronounced a perfect man.

'But St. John himself says, "If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves"; and, "if we say we have not sinned, we make Him a liar, and His word is not in us."

'I answer-(1) The tenth verse fixes the sense of the eighth. "If we say we have no sin," in the former , being explained by, "If we say we have not sinned," in the latter verse. (2) The point of consideration is not whether we have or have not sinned heretofore; and neither of these verses asserts that we do sin, or commit sin now. (3) The ninth verse explains both the eighth and tenth: "If we confess our sins, He is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness." As if we had said, I have before affirmed, "The blood of Christ cleanseth from all sin." And no man can say, "I need it not; I have no sin to be cleansed from." "If we say we have no sin," that we have not sinned, "we deceive ourselves," and make God a liar. But "if we confess our sins, He is faithful and just," not only "to forgive us our sins, but also to cleanse us from all unrighteousness," that we may "go and sin no more." In conformity, therefore, both to the doctrine of St. John, and the whole tenor of the New Testament, we fix this conclusion: A Christian is so far perfect as not to commit sin.

'This is the glorious privilege of every Christian, yea, though he be but a babe in Christ. But it is only of grown Christians it can be affirmed they are in such a sense perfect, as, secondly, to be freed from evil thoughts and evil tempers. First, from evil or sinful thoughts. Indeed, whence should they spring? "Out of the heart of man," if at all, "proceed evil thoughts." If, therefore, the heart be no longer evil, then evil thoughts no longer proceed out of it. For, "a good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit."

'And as they are freed from evil thoughts, so likewise from evil tempers. Every one of these can say, with St. Paul, "I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me"; words that manifestly describe a deliverance from inward as well as from outward sin. This is expressed both negatively, "I live not,"-my evil nature, the body of sin, is destroyed; and positively, "Christ liveth in me,"-and, therefore, all that is holy and just and good. Indeed, both these, "Christ liveth in me," and "I live not," are inseparably connected. For what communion hath light.with darkness, or or Christ with Belial?

'He, therefore, who liveth in these Christian, hath purified their hearts by faith; insomuch that every one that has Christ in him, "the hope of glory, purifieth himself even as He is pure." He is purified from pride; for Christ was lowly in heart. He is pure from desire and self-will: for Christ desired only to do the will of His Father. And He is pure from anger, in the common sense of the word; for Christ was meek and gentle. I say, in the common sense of the word; for He is angry at sin while He is grieved for the sinner. He feels a displacency at every offence against God, but only tender compassion to the offender.

'Thus doth Jesus save His people from their sins; not only from outward sins, but from the sins of their hearts. "True," say some, "but not till death; not in this world." Nay, St. John says, "Herein is our love made perfect, that we may have boldness in the day of judgment; because, as He is, so are we in this world." The apostle here, beyond all contradiction, speaks of himself and other living Christians, of whom he flatly affirms, that not only at or after death, but "in this world," they are as their Master.

'Exactly agreeable to this are his words in the first chapter: "God is light, and in Him is no darkness at all. If we walk in the light, as He is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ His Son cleanseth us from all sin." And again: "If we confess our sins, He is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness." Now, it is evident the apostle here speaks of a deliverance wrought in this world. For he saith not, The blood of Christ will cleanse (at the hour of death, or in the day of judgment), but it "cleanseth," at the present time, us living Christians "from all sin." And it is equally evident, that if any sin remain, we are not cleansed from all sin. If any unrighteousness remain in the soul, it is not cleansed from all unrighteousness. Neither let any say that this relates to justification only, or the cleansing us from the guilt of sin-First, because this is confounding together what the apostle clearly distinguishes; who mentions first , "to forgive us our sins," and then, "to cleanse us from all unrighteousness." Secondly, because this is asserting justification by works in the strongest sense possible. It is making all inward, as well as all outward holiness, necessarily previous to justification. For if the cleansing here spoken of is no other than the cleansing us from the guilt of sin, then we are not cleansed from guilt, that is, not justified, unless on condition of walking "in the light as He is in the light." It remains, then, that Christians are saved in this world from all sin, from all unrighteousness; that they are now in such a sense, as not to commit sin, and to be freed from evil thoughts and evil tempers.'

It could not be but that a discourse of this kind, which directly contradicted the favourite opinion of many, who were esteemed by others, and possibly esteemed themselves, some of the best Christians (whereas, if these things were so,they were not Chrisitans at all), should give no small offence. Many answers or animadversions, therefore, were expected; but I was agreeably disappointed. I do not know that any appeared: so I went quietly on my way.

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