Some people will perhaps object that all these rules of holy living unto God in all that we do are too great a restraint upon human life, that it will be made too anxious a state by thus introducing a regard to God in all our actions, and that, by depriving ourselves of so many seemingly innocent pleasures, we shall render our lives dull, uneasy, and melancholy.
To which it may be answered:
First, that these rules are prescribed for and will certainly procure a quite contrary end. That instead of making our lives dull and melancholy, they will render them full of content and strong satisfactions. That by these rules we only change the childish satisfactions of our vain and sickly passions for the solid enjoyments and real happiness of a sound mind.
Secondly, that as there is no foundation for comfort in the enjoyments of this life but in the assurance that a wise and good God governeth the world, so the more we find out God in everything, the more we apply to Him in every place, the more we look up to Him in all our actions, the more we conform to His will, the more we act according to His wisdom and imitate His goodness, by so much the more do we enjoy God, partake of the divine nature and heighten and increase all that is happy and comfortable in human life.
Thirdly, he that is endeavoring to subdue and root out of his mind all those passions of pride, envy, and ambition which religion opposes is doing more to make himself happy even in this life than he that is contriving means to indulge them.
For these passions are the causes of all the disquiets and vexations of human life. They are the dropsies and fevers of our minds, vexing them with false appetites and restless cravings after such things as we do not want, and spoiling our taste for those things which are our proper good.
Do but imagine that you somewhere or other saw a man that proposed reason as the rule of all his actions, that had no desires but after such things as nature wants and religion approves, that was as pure from all the motions of pride, envy, and covetousness as from thoughts of murder; that in this freedom from worldly passions he had a soul full of divine love, wishing and praying that all men may have what they want of worldly things and be partakers of eternal glory in the life to come.
Do but fancy a man living in this manner and your own conscience will immediately tell you that he is the happiest man in the world and that it is not in the power of the richest fancy to invent any higher happiness in the present state of life.
And on the other hand, if you suppose him to be in any degree less perfect, if you suppose him but subject to one foolish fondness or vain passion, your own conscience will again tell you that he so far lessens his own happiness and robs himself of the true enjoyment of his other virtues. So true is it that the more we live by the rules of religion, the more peaceful and happy do we render our lives.
Again, as it thus appears that real happiness is only to be had from the greatest degrees of piety, the greatest denials of our passions, and the strictest rules of religion, so the same truth will appear from a consideration of human misery. If we look into the world and view the disquiets and troubles of human life, we shall find that they are all owing to our violent and irreligious passions.
Now all trouble and uneasiness is founded in the want of something or other. Would we therefore know the true cause of our troubles and disquiets, we must find out the cause of our wants, because that which creates and increaseth our wants does in the same degree create and increase our trouble and disquiets.
God Almighty has sent us into the world with very few wants. Meat and drink and clothing are the only things necessary in life, and as these are only our present needs, so the present world is well furnished to supply these needs.
If a man had half the world in his power he can make no more of it than this; as he wants it only to support an animal life, so is it unable to do anything else for him or to afford him any other happiness.
This is the state of man, born with few wants and into a large world very capable of supplying them. So that one would reasonably suppose that men should pass their lives in content and thankfulness to God, at least that they should be free from violent disquiets and vexations, as being placed in a world that has more than enough to relieve all their wants.
But if to all this we add that this short life, thus furnished with all that we want in it, is only a short passage to eternal glory where we shall be clothed with the brightness of angels and enter into the joys of God, we might still more reasonably expect that human life should be a state of peace and joy and delight in God. Thus it would certainly be if reason had its full power over us.
But alas, though God and nature and reason make human life thus free from wants and so full of happiness, yet our passions, in rebellion against God, against nature and reason, create a new world of evils and fill human life with imaginary wants-and vain disquiets.
The man of pride has a thousand wants which only his own pride has created, and these render him as full of trouble as if God had created him with a thousand appetites without creating anything that was proper to satisfy them. Envy and ambition have also their endless wants which disquiet the souls of men, and by their contradictory motions render them as foolishly miserable as those that want to fly and creep at the same time.
Let but any complaining, disquieted man tell you the ground of his uneasiness and you will plainly see that he is the author of his own torment, that he is vexing himself at some imaginary evil which will cease to torment him as soon as he is content to be that which God and nature and reason require him to be.
If you should see a man passing his days in disquiet because he could not walk upon the water or catch birds as they fly by him, you would readily confess that such a one might thank himself for such uneasiness. But now if you look into all the most tormenting disquiets of life you will find them all thus absurd, where people are only tormented by their own folly and vexing themselves at such things as no more concern them nor are any more their proper good than walking upon the water or catching birds.
What can you conceive more silly and extravagant than to suppose a man racking his brains and studying night and day how to fly, wandering from his own house and home, wearying himself with climbing upon every ascent, cringing and courting everybody he meets to lift him up from the ground, bruising himself with continual falls and at last breaking his neck? And all this from an imagination that it would be glorious to have the eyes of people gazing up at him, and mighty happy to eat and drink and sleep at the top of the highest trees in the kingdom. Would you not readily own that such a one was only disquieted by his own folly?
If you ask what it signifies to suppose such silly creatures as these as are nowhere to be found in human life, it may be answered that wherever you see an ambitious man, there you see this vain and senseless flyer.
Again, if you should see a man that had a large pond of water, yet living in continual thirst, not suffering himself to drink half a draught for fear of lessening his pond, if you should see him wasting his time and strength in fetching more water to his pond, always thirsty yet always carrying a bucket of water in his hand, watching early and late to catch the drops of rain, gaping after every cloud and running greedily into every mire and mud in hopes of water and always studying how to make every ditch empty itself into his pond; if you should see him grow gray and old in these anxious labors and at last end a careful, thirsty life by falling into his own pond, would you not say that such a one was not only the author of all his own disquiets, but was foolish enough to be reckoned amongst idiots and madmen? But yet foolish and absurd as this character is, it does not represent half the follies and absurd disquiets of the covetous man.
I could now easily proceed to show the same effects of all our other passions, and make it plainly appear that all our miseries, vexations, and complaints are entirely of our own making and that in the same absurd manner as in these instances of the covetous and ambitious man. Look where you will, you will see all worldly vexations but like the vexation of him that was always in mire and mud in search of water to drink when he had more at home than was sufficient for a hundred horses.
Celia is always telling you how provoked she is, what intolerable shocking things happen to her, what monstrous usage she suffers, and what vexations she meets with everywhere. She tells you that her patience is quite worn out and there is no bearing the behavior of people. Every assembly that she is at sends her home provoked; something or other has been said or done that no reasonable, well-bred person ought to bear. Poor people that want her charity are sent away with hasty answers not because she has not a heart to part with any money, but because she is too full of some trouble of her own to attend to the complaints of others. Celia has no business upon her hands but to receive the income of a plentiful fortune; but yet by the doleful turn of her mind, you would be apt to think that she had neither food nor lodging. If you see her look more pale than ordinary, if her lips tremble when she speaks to you, it is because she is just come from a visit where Lupus took no notice at all of her but talked all the time to Lucinda, who has not half her fortune. When cross accidents have so disordered her spirits that she is forced to send for the doctor to make her able to eat, she tells him, in great anger at providence, that she never was well since she was born and that she envies every beggar that she sees in health.
This is the disquiet life of Celia, who has nothing to torment her but her own spirit.
If you could inspire her with Christian humility, you need do no more to make her as happy as any person in the world. This virtue would make her thankful to God for half so much health as she has had, and help her to enjoy more for the time to come. This virtue would keep off tremblings of the spirits and loss of appetite, and her blood would need nothing else to sweeten it.
I have just touched upon these absurd characters for no other end but to convince you in the plainest manner that the strictest rules of religion are so far from rendering a life dull, anxious, and uncomfortable (as is above objected) that on the contrary all the miseries, vexations, and complaints that are in the world are allowing to the want of religion, being directly caused by those absurd passions which religion teaches us to deny.
For all the wants which disturb human life, which make us uneasy to ourselves, quarrelsome with others, and unthankful to God, which weary us in vain labors and foolish anxieties, which carry us from project to project, from place to place in a poor pursuit of we don't know what, are the wants which neither God, nor nature, nor reason hath subjected us to, but are solely infused into us by pride, envy, ambition, and covetousness.
So far therefore as you reduce your desires to such things as nature and reason require, so far as you regulate all the motions of your heart by the strict rules of religion, so far you remove yourself from that infinity of wants and vexations which torment every heart that is left to itself.
Most people indeed confess that religion preserves us from a great many evils and helps us in many respects to a more happy enjoyment of ourselves; but then they imagine that this is only true of such a moderate share of religion as only gently restrains us from the excesses of our passions. They suppose that the strict rules and restraints of an exalted piety are such contradictions to our nature as must needs make our lives dull and uncomfortable.
Although the weakness of this objection sufficiently appears from what hath been already said, yet I shall add one word more to it.
This objection supposes that religion moderately practiced adds much to the happiness of life, but that such heights of piety as the perfection of religion requireth have a contrary effect.
It supposes therefore that it is happy to be kept from the excesses of envy, but unhappy to be kept from other degrees of envy. That it is happy to be delivered from a boundless ambition, but unhappy to be without a more moderate ambition. It supposes also that the happiness of life consists in a mixture of virtue and vice, a mixture of ambition and humility, charity and envy, heavenly affection and covetousness. All which is as absurd as to suppose that it is happy to be free from excessive pains, but unhappy to be without more moderate pains, or that the happiness of health consisted in being partly sick and partly well.
For if humility be the peace and rest of the soul, then no one has so much happiness from humility as he that is the most humble. If excessive envy is a torment of the soul, he most perfectly extinguishes every spark of envy. If there is any peace and joy in doing any action according to the will of God, he that brings the most of his actions to this rule does most of all increase the peace and joy of his life.
And thus it is in every virtue; if you act up to every degree of it, the more happiness you have from it. And so of every vice: If you only abate its excesses, you do but little for yourself; but if you reject it in all degrees, then you feel the true ease and joy of a reformed mind.
As for example: If religion only restrains the excesses of revenge but lets the spirit still live within you in lesser instances, your religion may have made your life a little more outwardly decent but not made you at all happier or easier in yourself. But if you have once sacrificed all thoughts of revenge in obedience to God, and are resolved to return good for evil at all times that you may render yourself more like to God and fitter for his mercy in the kingdom of love and glory, this is a height of virtue that will make you feel its happiness.
Secondly, as to those satisfactions and enjoyments which an exalted piety requireth us to deny ourselves, this deprives us of no real comfort of life.
For, first, piety requires us to renounce no ways of life where we can act reasonably and offer what we do to the glory of God. All ways of life, all satisfactions and enjoyments that are within these bounds, are no way denied us by the strictest rules of piety. Whatever you can do or enjoy as in the presence of God as His servant, as His rational creature, that has received reason and knowledge from Him, all that you can perform conformably to a rational nature and the will of God, all this is allowed by the laws of piety. And will you think that your life will be uncomfortable unless you may displease God, be a fool and mad, and act contrary to that reason and wisdom which he has implanted in you?
And as for those satisfactions which we dare not offer to a holy God, which are only invented by the folly and corruption of the world, which inflame our passions and sink our souls into grossness and sensuality and render us incapable of the divine favor either here or hereafter, surely it can be no uncomfortable state of life to be rescued by religion from such self-murder and to be rendered capable of eternal happiness.
Let us suppose a person destitute of that knowledge which we have from our senses placed somewhere alone by himself, in the midst of a variety of things which he did not know how to use, that he has by him bread, wine, water, golden dust, iron chains, gravel, garments, fire, etc. Let it be supposed that he has no knowledge of the right use of these things, nor any direction from his senses how to quench his thirst, or satisfy his hunger, or make any use of the things about him. Let it be supposed that in his drought he puts golden dust into his eyes; when his eyes smart, he puts wine into his ears; that in his hunger, he puts gravel in his mouth; that in pain, he loads himself with the iron chains; that feeling cold, he puts his feet in the water; that being frighted at the fire, he runs away from it; that being weary, he makes a seat of his bread. Let it be supposed that through his ignorance of the right use of the things that are about him, he will vainly torment himself whilst he lives and at last die, blinded with dust, choked with gravel, and loaded with irons. Let it be supposed that some good being came to him and showed him the nature and use of all the things that were about him and gave him such strict rules of using them as would certainly, if observed, make him the happier for all that he had, and deliver him from the pains of hunger, and thirst, and cold.
Now could you with any reason affirm that those strict rules of using those things that were about him had rendered that poor man's life dull and uncomfortable?
Now this is in some measure a representation of the strict rules of religion; they only relieve our ignorance, save us from tormenting ourselves, and teach us to use everything about us to our proper advantage.
Man is placed in a world full of variety of things; his ignorance makes him use many of them as absurdly as the man that put dust his eyes to relieve his thirst, or put on chains to remove pain.
Religion therefore here comes in to his relief and gives him strict rules of using everything that is about him, that by so using them suitably to his own nature and the nature of the things, he may have always the pleasure of receiving a right benefit from them. It shows him what is strictly right in meat, and drink, and clothes, and that he has nothing else to expect from the things of this world but to satisfy such wants of his own, and then to extend his assistance to all his brethren, that as far as he is able, he may help all his fellow creatures to the same benefit from the world that he hath.
It tells him that this world is incapable of giving him any other happiness and that all endeavors to he happy in heaps of money, or acres of land, in fine clothes, rich beds, stately equipage, and show and splendor are only vain endeavors, ignorant attempts after impossibilities, these things being no more able to give the least degree of happiness than dust in the eyes can cure thirst, or gravel in the mouth satisfy hunger, but like dust and gravel misapplied will only serve to render him more unhappy by such an ignorant misuse of them.
It tells him that although this world can do no more for him than satisfy these wants of the body, yet that there is a much greater good prepared for man than eating, drinking, and dressing, that it is yet invisible to his eyes, being too glorious for the apprehension of flesh and blood, but reserved for him to enter upon as soon as this short life is over, where, in a new body formed to an angelic likeness, he shall dwell in the light and glory of God to all eternity.
It tells him that this state of glory will he given to all those that make a right use of the things of this present world, who do not blind themselves with golden dust, or eat gravel, or groan under loads of iron of their own putting on, but use bread, water, wine, and garments for such ends as are according to nature and reason, and who with faith and thankfulness worship the kind giver of all that they enjoy here and hope for hereafter.
Now can anyone say that the strictest rules of such a religion as this debar us of any of the comforts of life? Might it not as justly be said of those rules that only hindered a man from choking himself with gravel? For the strictness of these rules only consists in the exactness of their rectitude.
Who would complain of the severe strictness of a law that without any exception forbade the putting of dust into our eyes? Who could think it too rigid, that there were no abatements? Now this is the strictness of religion, it requires nothing of us strictly or without abatements, but where every degree of the thing is wrong, where every indulgence does us some hurt.
If religion forbids all instances of revenge without any exception, 'tis because all revenge is of the nature of poison, and though we don't take so much as to put an end to life, yet if we take any at all, it corrupts the whole mass of blood and makes it difficult to be restored to our former health.
If religion commands a universal charity, to love our neighbor as ourselves, to forgive and pray for all our enemies without any reserve, 'tis because all degrees of love are degrees of happiness that strengthen and support the divine life of the soul and are as necessary to its health and happiness as proper food is necessary to the health and happiness of the body.
If religion has laws against laying up treasures upon earth and commands us to be content with food and raiment, 'tis because every other use of the world is abusing it to our own vexation and turning all its conveniencies into snares and traps to destroy us. 'Tis because this plainness and simplicity of life secures us from the cares and pains of restless pride and envy and makes it easier to keep that strait road that will carry us to eternal life.
If religion saith, "Sell that thou hast, and give to the poor," 'tis because there is no other natural or reasonable use of our riches, no other way of making ourselves happier for them, 'tis because it is as strictly right to give others that which we do not want ourselves as 'tis right to use so much as our own wants require. For if a man has more food than his own nature requires, how base and unreasonable is it to invent foolish ways wasting it and make sport for his own full belly, rather than let his fellow creatures have the same comfort from food which he hath had. It is so far therefore from being a hard law of religion to make this use of our riches that a reasonable man would rejoice in that religion which teaches him to be happier in that which he keeps for himself, which teaches him to make spare food and raiment be greater blessings to him than that which feeds and clothes his own body.
If religion requires us sometimes to fast and deny our natural appetites, 'tis to lessen that struggle and war that is our nature; 'tis to render our bodies fitter instruments of purity and more obedient to the good motions of divine grace; 'tis to dry up the springs of our passions that war against the soul, to cool the flame of our blood, and render the mind more capable of divine meditations. So that although these abstinences give some pain to the body, yet they so lessen the power of bodily appetites and passions and so increase our taste of spiritual joys that even these severities of religion, when practiced with discretion, add much to the comfortable enjoyment of our lives.
If religion calleth us to a life of watching and prayer, 'tis because we live amongst a crowd of enemies and are always in need of the assistance of God. If we are to confess and bewail our sins, 'tis because such confessions relieve the mind and restore it to ease, as burdens and weights taken off the shoulders relieve the body and make it easier to itself. If we are to be frequent and fervent in holy petitions, 'tis to keep us steady in the sight of our true good and that we may never want the happiness of a lively faith, a joyful hope, and well-grounded trust in God. If we are to pray often, 'tis that we may be often happy in such secret joys as only prayer can give, in such communications of the divine presence as will fill our minds with all the happiness that beings not in Heaven are capable of.
Was there anything in the world more worth our care, was there any exercise of the mind or any conversation with men that turned more to our advantage than this intercourse with God, we should not be called to such a continuance in prayer. But if a man considers what it is that he leaves when he retires to devotion, he will find it no small happiness to be so often relieved from doing nothing, or nothing to the purpose, from dull idleness, unprofitable labor, or vain conversation. If he considers that all that is in the world and all that is doing in it is only for the body and bodily enjoyments, he will have reason to rejoice at those hours of prayer which carry him to higher consolations, which raise him above these poor concerns, which open to his mind a scene of greater things and accustom his soul to the hope and expectation of them.
If religion commands us to live wholly unto God and to do all to His glory, 'tis because every other way is living wholly against ourselves and will end in our own shame and confusion of face.
As everything is dark that God does not enlighten, as everything is senseless that has not its share of knowledge from him, as nothing lives but by partaking of life from him, as nothing exists but because he commands it to be, so there is no glory or greatness but what is the glory or greatness of God.
We indeed may talk of human glory as we may talk of human life or human knowledge; but as we are sure that human life implies nothing of our own but a dependent living in God or enjoying so much life in God, so human glory, whenever we find it, must be only so much glory as we enjoy in the glory of God.
This is the state of all creatures, whether men or angels; as they make not themselves, so they enjoy nothing from themselves; if they are great, it must be only as great receivers of the gifts of God; their power can only be so much of the divine power acting in them; their wisdom can be only so much of the divine wisdom shining within them, and their light and glory only so much of the light and glory of God shining upon them.
As they are not men or angels because they had a mind to be so themselves but because the will of God formed them to be what they are, so they cannot enjoy this or that happiness of men or angels because they have a mind to it but because it is the will of God that such things be the happiness of men, and such things the happiness of angels. But now if God be thus all in all, if His will is thus the measure of all things and all natures, if nothing can be done but by His power, if nothing can be seen but by a light from Him, if we have nothing to fear but from His justice, if we have nothing to hope for but from His goodness, if this is the nature of man thus helpless in himself, if this is the state of all creatures, as well those in Heaven as those on earth, if they are nothing, can do nothing, can suffer no pain nor feel any happiness but so far and in such degrees as the power of God does all this, if this be the state of things, then how can we have the least glimpse of joy or comfort, how can we have any peaceful enjoyment of ourselves but by living wholly unto that God, using and doing everything conformably to His will? A life thus devoted unto God, looking wholly unto Him in all our actions and doing all things suitably to His glory, is so far from being dull and uncomfortable that it creates new comforts in everything that we do.
On the contrary, would you see how happy they are who live according to their own wills, who cannot submit to the dull and melancholy business of a life devoted unto God, look at the man in the parable to whom his Lord had given one talent.
He could not bear the thoughts of using his talent according to the will of him from whom he had it, and therefore he chose to make himself happier in a way of his own. "Lord," says he, "I knew thee, that thou art an hard man, reaping where thou hadst not sown, and gathering where thou hadst not strawed. 25 and I was afraid, and went and hid thy talent in the earth. Lo there thou hast that is thine."
His Lord having convicted him out of his own mouth dispatches him with this sentence, "Cast the unprofitable servant into outer darkness; there shall be weeping, and gnashing of teeth" (Matt. 25:30).
Here you see how happy this man made himself by not acting wholly according to his Lord's will. It was, according to his own account, a happiness of murmuring and discontent; I knew thee, says he, that thou wast a hard man. It was a happiness of fears and apprehensions; I was, says he, afraid. It was a happiness of vain labors and fruitless travails. I went, says he, and hid thy talent; and after having been a while the sport of foolish passions, tormenting fears, and fruitless labors, he is rewarded with darkness, eternal weeping, and gnashing of teeth.
Now this is the happiness of all those who look upon a strict and exalted piety, that is, a right use of their talent, to be a dull and melancholy state of life.
They may live a while free from the restraints and directions of religion, but instead thereof they must be under the absurd government of their passions. They must, like the man in the parable, live in murmurings and discontents, in fears and apprehensions. They may avoid the labor of doing good, of spending their time devoutly, of laying up treasures in heaven, of clothing the naked, of visiting the sick; but then they must, like this man, have labors and pains in vain that tend to no use or advantage, that do no good either to themselves or others; they must travail, and labor, and work, and dig to hide their talent in the earth. They must, like him at their Lord's coming, be convicted out of their own mouths, be accused by their own hearts, and have everything that they have said and thought of religion be made to show the justice of their condemnation to eternal darkness, weeping and gnashing of teeth.
This is the purchase that they make who avoid the strictness and perfection of religion in order to live happily.
On the other hand, would you see a short description of the happiness of a life rightly employed, wholly devoted to God, you must look at the man in the parable to whom his Lord had given five talents. "Lord," says he, "thou deliveredst unto me five talents: behold I have gained besides them five talents more. His Lord said unto him, well done thou good and faithful servant; thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things; enter thou into the joy of thy Lord."
Here you see a life that is wholly intent upon the improvement of the talents, that is devoted wholly unto God, is a state of happiness, prosperous labors, and glorious success. Here are not, as in the former case, any uneasy passions, murmurings, vain fears, and fruitless labors. The man is not toiling and digging in the earth for no end or advantage, but his pious labors prosper in his hands, his happiness increases upon him, the blessing of five becomes the blessing of ten talents, and he is received with a "well done good and faithful servant, enter thou into the joy of thy Lord."
Now as the case of these men in the parable left nothing else to their choice but either to be happy in using their gifts to the glory of the Lord or miserable by using them according to their own humors and fancies, so the state of Christianity leaves us no other choice.
All that we have, all that we are, all that we enjoy, are only so many talents from God. If we use them to the ends of a pious and holy life, our five talents will become ten and our labors will carry us into the joy of our Lord; but if we abuse them to the gratifications of our own pride and vanity, we shall live here in vain labors and foolish anxieties, shunning religion as a melancholy thing, accusing our Lord as a hard master, and then fall into everlasting misery.
We may for a while amuse ourselves with names, and sounds, and shadows of happiness; we may talk of this or that greatness and dignity; but if we desire real happiness, we have no other possible lay to it but by improving our talents by so holily and piously using the powers and faculties of men in this present state that we may be happy and glorious in the powers and faculties of angels in the world to come.
How ignorant therefore are they of the nature of religion, of the nature of man, and the nature of God who think a life of strict piety and devotion to God to be a dull uncomfortable state when it's so plain and certain that there is neither comfort or joy to be found in anything else.
25. Strawed: strewed, or strewn, that is, scattered. Law follows the usage of the King James or "Authorized Version" of the parable of the talents (Matthew 25:14-30).
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